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Part3 (last) – Takattuf/Takfeer (Folding hands in salat)

Part3 (last) – Takattuf/Takfeer (Folding hands in salat)

[ 9300 ] 6 ـ وقد تقدم حديث حريز ، عمن ذكره ، عن أبي جعفر ( عليه السلام ) ، أنه لم يكن يرى بأساً أن يصلي الماشي وهو يمشي ولكن لا يسوق الابل .

6 – And there has preceded in the hadith of Hariz from the one who he mentioned from Abu Ja`far (as) that he did not regard there to be any harm with the walking person praying while he is walking, however he should not drive (i.e. lead on) the camel.

This narration is not talking about Takattuf/Takfeer, Aslan.

 [ 9301 ] 7 ـ محمد بن علي بن الحسين في ( الخصال ) بإسناده عن علي ( عليه السلام ) ـ في حديث الأربعمائة ـ قال : لا يجمع المسلم يديه في صلاته وهو قائم بين يدي الله عزّ وجلّ يتشبه بأهل الكفر يعني المجوس .

7 – Muhammad b. `Ali b. al-Husayn in al-Khisal by his isnad from `Ali (as) in the hadith of the four hundred.  He said: “A Muslim does not gather together his hands in his prayer when he standing in front of Allah (SWT) seeking to imitate the disbelievers – i.e. the Majoos (Zoroastrians)…”

The Sanad and content of this seventh and last narration from the above Baab (section) in Wasaailu Shia has been taken from al-Khisaal (pg 622) and has also been reproduced by Allamah Majlisi in Bihaarul Anwaar (Volume 10) as follows:

باب 7 : ما علمه صلوات الله عليه من أر بعمائة باب مما يصلح للمسلم في دينه ودنياه 

1 – ل : أبي ، عن سعد ، عن اليقطيني عن القاسم بن يحيى ، عن جده الحسن بن راشد عن أبي بصير ، ومحمد بن مسلم عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال : حدثني أبي ، عن جدي عن آبائه عليهم السلام أن أميرالمؤمنين عليه السلام علم أصحابه في مجلس واحد أربعمائة باب مما يصلح للمؤمن في دينه ودنياه .

http://www.al-shia.org/html/ara/books/lib-hadis/behar10/a9.html

Here is the Matn, which has Imam Ali (as) allegedly saying:

لا يجمع المسلم يديه في صلاته وهو قائم بين يدي الله عزوجل يتشبه بأهل الكفر – يعني المجوس –

“A Muslim does not gather together his hands in his prayer when he standing in front of Allah (SWT) seeking to imitate the disbelievers – i.e. the Majoos…”

ANALYSIS OF SANAD

As you can see the Sanad of this narration has al-Qasim bin Yahya narrating from his grandfather, al-Hasan bin Rashid, and both of these narrators (i.e. the grandfather, al-Hasan bin Rashid, as well as his grandson, al-Qasim bin Yahya), have been declared to be Dhaeef (weak) by scholars of Ilme Rijaal such as Ibn al-Ghadhaa’iri from among the Mutaqaddimeen and Allamah Hilli and Ayatullah Sayyid Abul Qasim al-Khui from the Muta’akhhireen. See for yourself the verdict of Ayatullah Khui:

كتاب الطهارة – السيد الخوئي – ج 8 – شرح ص 350 – 351

على أن سندها ضعيف بمحمد بن سنان وأحمد بن محمد الكوفي وابن جمهور وأبيه أي جمهور نفسه لأنه مهمل ،وقد وردت في طريق آخر للصدوق وهو ضعيف أيضا لوجود القاسم بن يحيى وجده الحسن بن راشد فيه، وهما ضعيفان والحسن هو مولى المنصور ( الضعيف ) بقرينة رواية القاسم عنه 

كتاب الطهارة – السيد الخوئي – ج 8 – شرح ص 442

وهي من حيث الدلالة ظاهرة ولكنها ضعيفة من حيث السند لأنها مروية بطريقين : الكليني والصدوق وهي على طريق الكليني تشتمل على جماعة من الضعاف . وعلى طريق الصدوق تشتمل على القاسم ابن يحيى وجده الحسن بن راشد وكلاهما ضعيف كما مر في بعض الأبحاث السابقة .

Ayatullah al-Khui is not alone in discrediting these narrators; other scholars have stated the same:

25 – القاسم بن يحيى: وهو يروي عن جده «الحسن بن راشد»: وقال الغضائري رضي الله عنه كما جاء في مجمع الرجال (ج5/ص53): «روى عن جده ضعيفٌ». ووصفه التفرشي في «نقد الرجال» بأنه فاسد المذهب. وتبع العلامةُ الحليُّ الغضائريَّ فيما قاله عنه واعتبره ضعيفاً في خلاصته:

As you can see, Ibn al-Ghadhaairi testifies that al-Qasim bin Yahya is Dhaeef, and he narrates from his grandfather al-Hasan bin Rashid who is also Dhaeef, and another scholar of Rijaal describes al-Qasim bin Yahya as “Faasidul Mazhab” (having corrupt belief). Allama Hilli also considered him as Dhaeef in his Khulaasah.

Therefore this narration is Dhaeef according to the Manhaj of both Ayatullah Sayyid Abul Qasim al-Khui as well as Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Seestani, and cannot be relied upon to prove anything in Fiqh.

Despite this, the principal of the community college of Ilme Rijaal, i.e. Ayatullah Sheikh Muslim al-Dawri, has authenticated it and declared it to be Saheeh, which shows you how weak his Manhaj is.

The other narration that is usually often cited is one that has been attributed to Imam al-Baqir (as) in the book Al Hadaaiq by Sheikh Yusuf al-Bahraani:

( ففي الحدائق الناضرة للمحقق البحراني قدس سره : 9 / 10 : ( وعن حريز عن رجل عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال : ( لا تكفر ، إنما يصنع ذلك المجوس ) !

 

The weakness of this narration is a no-brainer, since the person from whom Hariz narrates has not been identified, and therefore this narration is dhaeef due to the fact that it’s Mursal, and hence there is no way it can be relied upon to prove anything in Fiqh.

 

Finally, it is also worth bearing in mind that we have equally dhanni narrations saying the opposite, i.e. that Takattuf/Takfeer in Salaah is permissible and there is no problem in folding one’s hands in prayer.

 

رواية العياشي في تفسيره عن إسحاق بن عمار عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: قلت له: أيضع الرجل يده على ذراعه في الصلاة؟ قال: لا بأس، إنّ بني إرسائيل كانوا إذا دخلوا في الصلاة دخلوا متماوتين كأنهم موتى، فأنزل الله على نبيه خذ ما أتيتك بقوة، فإذا دخلت الصلاة فادخل فيها بجلد وقوة، ثمّ ذكرها في طلب الرزق فإذا طلبت الرزق فاطلبه بقوة .

 

Al-Ayyashi in his Tafseer reports on the authority of Ishaaq bin Ammar from Imam Sadiq (as), whom he asked: “Can a man place his hand on his arm during Salaah?

Imam (as) replied: There is no problem in that…”

And there are several other narrations from which the permissibility of this can be derived. Those interested may visit the following link:

http://www.aqaed.com/book/613/15.html

CONCLUSION:

We have no Qatiyy (concrete/conclusive) proof that the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt (as) ever banned Takattuf (folding hands) in Salaah except for narrations that are dhaeef and dhanniyyul wurood. Besides, even if these Riwaayaat had been Saheeh, it would still be an uphill task for scholars to prove that Takattuf is Haraam or that it invalidates the Salaah, because none of the above narrations indicates any of that. According to some of the classical Shia Fuqahaa, the most that can be gleaned from these weak narrations, if we suppose for a moment that the Imams actually said what these narrators claim they said, then the most that can be gleaned from this is that the position of the Imams is Nahyu Karaahah, i.e. that the Imams considered it Makrooh to do so, which wouldn’t be such a far-fetched position, because according to one narration, Imam Malik bin Anas was also of the opinion that Takattuf in Fardh Salaah is Makrooh, so it’s possible that the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt (as) were also of the same view, however, there is no categorical proof for that in our sources except for the weak narrations above, and the verdicts of the scholars over the course of the centuries, even though the Shia scholars themselves didn’t have a uniform stance, with some saying Takattuf is Makrooh, and others saying that it is Haraam, but it doesn’t invalidate the Salaah, and still others saying it does invalidate the Salaah.

In any case, there is nothing for Takattuf or against it except for Dhanni evidence, therefore, we conclude that it is Mubaah at the very least, and this is the most moderate and balanced position. No one has the right to say that it is Haraam or that it invalidates the prayer because that would be a claim with no solid Daleel to back it up.

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