Ziyarat Ashura is one of the most popular texts among the Shias today, and it is presented as though it is very authentic and all the scholars accept it, even though this is far from the truth. Those who tried to prove its authenticity had to resort to a lot of “Dhann” (speculation).
Some introductory points:
(1) Even though no Shirk is ever proved from this ziyarat (thankfully), there is another thing that people use this Ziyaarah to prove, i.e. the permissibility of publicly cursing or invoking La’nah.
(2) This is a very popular Ziyaarah, and scholars and speakers have done a lot to popularize it, with some speakers devoting entire Ashras to explaining its meanings, and others writing a whole book on the commentary of Ziyaarate Ashoora. (I find it so ironic that we give so much importance to a text that, as I will show below, could very well be the fabrication of the Ghulaat, and devote so much time and energy towards promoting and explaining the statements of the serial liars (i.e. the Ghulaat) who invented all this stuff and then added insult to injury by committing the crime of “Iftiraa” and attributing their wild and visceral statements to the pure and pious Imams of the Ahlul Bayt (as).
(3) The stuff I will share below is something that is almost never shared by scholar and speakers from the pulpit, but people have a right to know, and they should know that these kinds of researches exist.
(4) The first common myth that scholars spread about this Ziyaarah is that there is no need to question its authenticity because this Ziyaarah is accepted by all our Maraje and great scholars of llme Rijaal.
In fact, nothing could be further from the truth.
(5) Ayatullah Sheikh Husain al-Radhy, one of the most brilliant contemporary scholars of Ilme Rijaal from the Hawza of Najaf, wrote a whole book (in about 548 pages) analysing the Sanad (chain) as well as Matn (text) of Ziyaarate Ashoorah entitled “Ziyaarah Ashooraa fil Meezaan”, and concluded that its chains are manifestly weak and unreliable.
He also highlighted the fact that the last two sections of the Ziyaarah (which contain the malediction that is to be repeated 100 times) are manifest interpolations/additions to the original text, as can also be seen from the testimony of Sayyid Ibn Tawoos who has an original manuscript with the original text of the Ziyaarah in his possession.
This has also been mentioned by other scholars, such a Ayatullah Syed Kamal Haydari. Those who understand arabic can refer to this video:
السيد كمال الحيدري يُنكر اللعن الموجود في آخر زيارة عاشوراء ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w64Cb5-a_Is )
(6) This book obviously stirred a lot of controversy, but its findings were fully approved and endorsed by Ayatullah Sayyid Mohammad Husain Fadhlallah, who made it clear that the research presented in it was unassailable, and no scholar has been able to refute this research. Those who are proficient in Arabic can read this book and judge for themselves, as it can be downloaded from the following link:
For those who don’t understand Arabic, In the next part I will present a very summarized and abridged account of this research (I am only going to present analysis of the chains (Asaaneed), and not the text, because in my opinion, once it is established that the Sanad is invalid and unreliable, there is no point in examining the text. After all, why should we waste our breath over something for which we don’t even have sufficient proof that it originated from an Imam to begin with?)
(cont…. in Part 2)